Justice System – 100 questions

MultipleChoiceQuestions(Enteryouranswersontheenclosedanswersheet)

1. WhichviewofincorporationfavorsincorporationofcertainprotectionsenumeratedintheBill of Rights, but not all of them? It deems certain rights as being more critical or fundamental thanothers.

a. TotalIncorporation
b. SelectiveIncorporation
c. Total IncorporationPlus
d. Case-by-CaseIncorporation

2. Whichincorporationperspectivehasarguably“wonout”overtheothers?

a. TotalIncorporation
b. SelectiveIncorporation
c. Total IncorporationPlus
d. Case-by-CaseIncorporation

3. Aprecedentisaruleofcaselawthatisbindingonalllowercourtsandthecourtthatissuedit. Thecourtswilldefertopriordecisionsbasedonasimilarsetoffactsandlegalquestions.This doctrine is knownas:

a. ResGestae.
b. ScireFeci.
c. StareDecisis.
d. SuoMotu.

4. Whenadecisiondoesnotapplytothecurrentfacts,acourtwill , saying,ineffect, thatbecausethefactsofthepresentcasearedifferent,thecasecannotbedecidedthesame way.

a. distinguish thecase
b. use caseprecedent
c. judgedecision
d. enact caselaw

5. Thetheoryworldandrealworldcandifferforwhichofthefollowingreasons?

a. TheSupremeCourtsometimesmakesdecisionsonexcruciatinglydetailedmattersthat havealmostnoapplicabilitytomostlawenforcementofficersmostofthetime.
b. The Supreme Court frequently hands down decisions that would seem to have dramatic effectsonthenatureoflawenforcement,butactuallyinvolveissuesthatarealreadybeing addressedbymanypoliceagencies.
c. Whatthecourtssayandwhatthepolicedocandiffersimplyasaconsequenceofsome aspect of the U.S. legalsystem.
d. All of theabove.

6. Theprimarypurposeofcriminalprocedureistomaintaintheproperbalancebetween:

a. controlling crime and dueprocess.
b. dictatorship anddemocracy.
c. servitude andequality.
d. protection andprocedure.

7. WhichofthefollowingisNOToneoftheconceptsunderlyingthedueprocessperspective?

a. The criminal process looks, or should look, something like an “obstaclecourse.”
b. Quantityisbetterthanquality.
c. Formalityispreferredoverinformality.
d. A great deal of faith is put in thecourts.

8. WhichofthefollowingisNOTacharacteristicofthecrimecontrolperspective?

a. Assembly-linejustice
b. Quantity overquality
c. Insistence oninformality
d. Faith in thecourts

9. Legalguiltisdeterminedbywhetherapersonisguiltyaccordingtothe:

a. police
b. judge
c. law
d. jury

10. Which exception to the fruit of poisonous tree doctrine permits the introduction of evidence if ithasbecomeattenuatedtotheextentthatitdissipatedthetaintoftheinitialunconstitutional act?

a. Independentsourceexception
b. Purged taintexception
c. Inevitableexception
d. Questionableprocedureexception

11. Which exception to the fruit of the poisonous tree doctrine permits the introduction of evidenceifithasarrivedviaanindependentsource,suchasapartydisconnectedfromthe case athand?

a. Independentsourceexception
b. Purged taintexception
c. Inevitableexception
d. Questionableprocedureexception

12. Whichexceptiontothefruitofthepoisonoustreedoctrinepermitstheintroductionof evidenceifitwouldhavebeendiscoveredanyway?

a. Independentsourceexception
b. Purged taintexception
c. Inevitableexception
d. Questionableprocedureexception

13. At the federal level, the most common statute for holding police officers criminally liableis:

a. 18 U.S.C. Section242.
b. 18 U.S.C. Section1983.
c. 18 U.S.C. Section1982.
d. 18 U.S.C. Section243.

14. To be held liable under Section 242, a law enforcement officermust:

a. negateaperson’srightswithoutforethought.
b. unintentionally deny an individual his or herrights.
c. actwithspecificintenttodepriveapersonofimportantconstitutional(orotherfederal) rights.
d. inadvertentlyimposerestrictionsonaperson’sconstitutionalrights.

15. In order for criminal liability to be imposed under Section242,a(n) rightmustbe clearlyestablished.

a. constitutional
b. inalienable
c. legal
d. ethical

16. 42U.S.CSection1983isusedfor:

a. criminalliability.
b. civilliability.
c. misdemeanorcharges.
d. noneoftheabove.

17. A defense that shields police officers from criminal liability when performing certain official functions,suchasusingdeadlyforce,isreferredtoas:

a. public dutydefense.
b. immunitydefense.
c. injunctive reliefdefense.
d. exceptiondefense.

18. Policeofficersactundercoloroflawwhenthey:

a. fail to file officialdocuments.
b. wearplainclothesduringoff-dutyhours.
c. identify themselves asofficers.
d. settleapersonalvendetta.

19. GovernmentactionaloneisnotenoughtoimplicatetheFourthAmendment.Thelaw enforcementactivitymustalsoinfringeonaperson’s:

a. reasonableexpectationofprivacy.
b. subjectivethoughtsofprivacy.
c. objectivedeterminationofbehavior.
d. knowingexposure.

20. Whenpeople conveyinformationorprovidematerialtothirdparties,theycannothaveareasonableexpectationofprivacy(evenifthosethirdpartiesarebestfriends)because thethirdpartiescouldeasilyturntheinformationovertoauthorities.

a. unwillingly
b. involuntarily
c. easily
d. voluntarily

21. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtfindthatrespondentscouldhavenoreasonable expectationofprivacyforabandonedproperty?

a. California v.Greenwood
b. United States v. OnLee
c. Hoffa v. UnitedStates
d. Katz v. UnitedStates

22. AccordingtotheSupremeCourt,whichofthefollowingisthe“areatowhichextendsthe intimate activity associated with the sanctity of a man’s home and the privacies oflife”?

a. Openfield
b. Curtilage
c. Physicalpresence
d. Venue

23. Anyunoccupiedorundevelopedrealpropertyfallingoutsidethecurtilageofahomeisreferred toas:

a. curtilage.
b. range.
c. openfield.
d. house.

24. Flashlights,drugdogs,satellitephotography,andthermalimageryareallexamplesof:

a. surveillanceequipment.
b. enforcementweapons.
c. enhancementdevices.
d. combattactical.

25. Whenthereissomemeaningfulinterferencewithanindividual’spossessoryinterestinthat property,itisdefinedasa:

a. seizureofproperty.
b. seizure ofpersons.
c. seizure.
d. search.

MultipleChoiceQuestions(Enteryouranswersontheenclosedanswersheet)

1. Whyfocusattentionontheconstitutionalityofarrests?

a. The constitutionality of an arrest is critical in determining whether evidence seizedin connection with the arrest is admissible incourt.
b. Aninnocentpersonmaysueanofficerordepartmentifunlawfullydetained.
c. Thereisnorecourseofanunlawfularrest.
d. Noneoftheabove

2. Theactoftakinganindividualintocustodyforthepurposeofchargingthepersonwitha criminaloffense(or,inthecaseofajuvenile,adelinquentact)isreferredtoasa(n):

a. stop.
b. arrest.
c. search.
d. seizure.

3. A(n) isabriefnonconsensualencounterbetweenalawenforcementofficerandacitizen that does not rise to the level of an arrest; it is the detention of a person by a law enforcementofficerforthepurposeofinvestigation.

a. stop
b. arrest
c. search
d. seizure

4. InwhichkeycasedidtheSupremeCourtdefinethemeaningofarrestasmorethanrestricting aperson’smovement?

a. Davis v.Mississippi
b. Florida v.Royer
c. Henry v. UnitedStates
d. Terry v.Ohio

5. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtrulethatstationhousedetentionsrequireprobablecause?

a. Carroll v. UnitedStates
b. Michigan v.Summers
c. Florida v.Royer,
d. Davis v.Mississippi

6. Indeterminingifanarresthasoccurred,thecourtswillweigh:

a. the duration of astop.
b. thedegreeoftheintrusion.
c. officers’intentions.
d. all of theabove.

7. Emergency circumstances, including hot pursuit, the possibility of escape, orevanescent evidenceareexamplesof:

a. crucialexceptions.
b. exceptionclauses.
c. exclusionaryrules.
d. exigentcircumstances.

8. WhichofthefollowingisNOTatypeofexigencyrecognizedbythecourtsthatauthorizesthe policetoactwithoutawarrant?

a. Hotpursuit
b. Likelihoodofescapeordangertoothersabsentofhotpursuit
c. Evanescentevidence
d. Inconvenienttoobtainawarrant

9. Evanescentevidencereferstoevidencethatislikelyto:

a. behidden.
b. spoil.
c. disappear.
d. betransferredtoanotherlocation.

10. Awarrantlesssearchforevanescentevidenceispermissiblewhen:

a. thereisprobablecausetobelievethatevidencewillbedestroyed,lost,ordevalued.
b. theproceduresemployedarereasonable.
c. theexigencywasnotpolice-created.
d. All of theabove

11. TheSupremeCourtfirstpermittedwarrantlesshotpursuitsearchesin:

a. Chimel v.California.
b. Sibron v. NewYork.
c. Wardenv.Hayden.
d. Welsh v.Wisconsin.

12. InwhichlandmarkcasedidtheSupremeCourtcarveouttheautomobileexceptiontothe FourthAmendment’swarrantrequirement?

a. Carroll v. UnitedStates
b. Cardwell v.Lewis
c. California v.Carney
d. Thoraton v. UnitedStates

13. Whichofthefollowingareconsideredrestrictionsonfrisks?

a. Frisksaretobenothingmorethanpat-downsofouterclothing.
b. Frisksmustbemotivatedbyadesiretopreserveofficersafety.
c. Foranofficertolegallyseizeanitemduringthecourseofafrisk,theitemtobeseized mustbeimmediatelyapparenttotheofficerascontraband.
d. All of theabove

14. Which case found that officers can demand identification in certainsituations?

a. Hiibelv.SixthJudicialDistrictCourtofNevada
b. Chicago v.Morales
c. Kolender v.Lawson
d. Papachristou v. City ofJacksonville

15. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtholdthatpoliceofficerscanstopanddetainmotoristsin their vehicles with “articulable and reasonablesuspicion?”

a. Terry v.Ohio
b. Pennsylvania v.Mimms
c. Delawarev. Prouse
d. Maryland v.Buie

16. The decision in Pennsylvania v.Mimms:

a. allows officers to frisk suspects’ outerclothing.
b. authorizethepolicetostopsuspicious-lookingindividualsbasedonlessthanreasonable suspicion.
c. allows an officer to demand identification fromcitizens.
d. authorizesapoliceofficertoorderadriveroutofacar.

17. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtholdthatpoliceofficers,withreasonablesuspicion,can orderdriversoutoftheircars?

a. Terry v.Ohio
b. Pennsylvania v.Mimms
c. Delawarev. Prouse
d. Maryland v.Buie

18. Stopsandfrisksareconsideredwhichtypeofacts?

a. Necessary
b. Advisory
c. Separate
d. Independent

19. Personinventoriesaresometimescalled:

a. armspansearches.
b. custodialinventories.
c. arrestinventories.
d. search incident toarrest.

20. In which case did the Supreme Court sanction fireinspections?

a. Camara v. MunicipalCourt
b. Michigan v. Tyler
c. United States v.Ramsey
d. Carroll v. UnitedStates

21. TheSupremeCourthasauthorizedwarrantlessinspectionsof:

a. firearmsdealerships.
b. vehiclejunkyards.
c. closely regulatedbusinesses.
d. all of theabove.

22. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtsanctionsobrietycheckpoints?

a. Carroll v. UnitedStates
b. Michigan Dept. of State Police v.Sitz
c. Delawarev. Prouse
d. United States v.Villamonte-Marquez

23. Which of the following is an unconstitutionalcheckpoint?

a. Border checkpoint
b. Sobriety checkpoint
c. License and safety checkpoint
d. Suspicionless checkpoints for detecting illegaldrugs

24. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtdeclarethatcheckpointsforthepurposeofdetecting evidence of criminal activity areunconstitutional?

a. Carroll v. UnitedStates
b. Michigan Dept. of State Police v.Sitz
c. Delawarev. Prouse
d. City of Indianapolis v.Edmond

25. A claim of racial profiling can be raised pursuantto:

a. the FourthAmendment.
b. the FifthAmendment.
c. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of1964.
d. 42 U.S.C. Section242.

MultipleChoiceQuestions(Enteryouranswersontheenclosedanswersheet)

1. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtholdthattheprosecution“maynotusestatements, whether exculpatory or inculpatory, stemming from custodial interrogation of the defendant…”?

a. Massiah v. UnitedStates
b. Rochin v.California
c. Miranda v.Arizona
d. Kirby v.Illinois

2. Besidesinterrogation,whichofthefollowingis/arecentralelement(s)oftheMirandaapproach toconfessionsandinterrogations?

a. Custody
b. Generalquestioning
c. Formal criminal proceedings
d. All of theabove

3. CustodyisdefinedbytheSupremeCourtashappeningwhen:

a. A person has been taken into“custody.”
b. Apersonhasbeenformallyarrested.
c. Apersonhasbeendeprivedofhisfreedomofactioninanysignificantway.
d. All of theabove

4. WhichofthefollowingcanbeconsideredinterrogationforMirandapurposes?

a. Formalquestioning.
b. Functional equivalent ofquestioning.
c. Asking a question that is reasonably likely to elicit an incriminatingresponse.
d. All of theabove

5. WhichofthefollowingisNOTanessentialelementoftheMirandawarnings?

a. “You have the right to remainsilent.”
b. “Youhavetherighttoanattorney.”
c. “Ifyoucannotaffordanattorney,onewillbeprovidedforyou.”
d. “Youhavetherighttostopansweringquestionsatanytime.”

6. WhatistheappropriatelevelofproofforshowingavalidMirandawaiver?

a. Proofbeyondareasonabledoubt
b. Probablecause
c. Preponderance ofevidence
d. Clear and convincingevidence

7. Whenidentificationproceduresviolateconstitutionalprovisions,theresultsfromsuch procedurescannotbeconsidered:

a. reliable.
b. accurate.
c. admissible in a criminaltrial.
d. All of theabove

8. Which of the following helps ensure a reliablelineup?

a. At least five people appear in thelineup.
b. All persons in the lineup have the same physicalcharacteristics.
c. Thesuspectshouldbepermittedtochoosehisorherplaceinline.
d. All of theabove

9. Aphotographicarrayconsistingofonepicturemaybesanctionedif:

a. thewitnesshadampletimetoviewthesuspect.
b. the witness paid special attention to thesuspect.
c. the witness’s description isaccurate.
d. All of theabove

10. Whatdoshow-upsconsistof?

a. Thesuspectandaneyewitness
b. At least fivepeople
c. Thesuspectandthesuspect’sattorney
d. At least threepeople

11. Whichofthefollowingisalwayspreferabletoshow-ups?

a. Lineups
b. Single photographicidentification
c. Videoarrays
d. In-courtshow-ups

12. If an in-court identification is influenced by an out-of-court identification, it is calleda(n):

a. taintedidentification.
b. flawedidentification.
c. unreliableidentification.
d. improperidentification.

13. Whichofthefollowingisamethodofpretrialreleasewherethedefendantpromisestoshowup whenrequired,withouthavingtopaymoney?

a. Bail
b. Preventivedetention
c. Releaseonownrecognizance
d. Absenteetrial

14. Forwhichofthefollowingcrimeswouldreleaseonrecognizancemostlikelybeordered?

a. Murders
b. Rapes
c. Robberies
d. Pettythefts

15. Whichofthefollowingcanbeconsideredcriteriafordecidingwhetherpretrialreleaseshould begranted?

a. Flightrisk
b. Dangerousness
c. Ability topay
d. All of theabove

16. Inresponsetomanydefendants’inabilitytopostbail,professional have steppedin.

a. bankers
b. loanofficers
c. bail bondsagents
d. skiptracers

17. WhichofthefollowingisNOTanappropriateconsiderationinsettingbail?

a. Potentialdangerousnessofallegedoffender
b. Offsetting courtcosts
c. Risk offlight
d. Financialstatus

18. Whichofthefollowingusuallytakesplaceafterapretrialreleasedecisionhasbeenmade?

a. Initialappearance
b. Bail
c. Preliminaryhearing
d. All of theabove

19. Whichofthefollowingistrueaboutthepreliminaryhearing?

a. Theaccusedenjoystherighttocounsel.
b. Theexclusionaryruledoesnottechnicallyapplyinpreliminaryhearings.
c. Thereisnoconstitutionalrightfortheaccusedtocross-examine.
d. All of theabove

20. Whichofthefollowingisintendedtopreventhasty,malicious,improvident,andoppressive prosecutions?

a. Trial
b. Pretrial releasehearing
c. Preliminaryhearing
d. Arraignment

21. Whenaprosecutorchargesanindividualsimplybecausetheindividualisexercisinghisorher constitutional rights, it isknownas prosecution.

a. selective
b. vindictive
c. aggressive
d. zealous

22. InYickWov.Hopkins,theSupremeCourtaddressedtheissueof:

a. selectiveprosecution.
b. chargejoinder.
c. grandjurybehavior.
d. prosecutorialimmunity.

23. Whenisthebesttimetoresolvethequestionofwhetherjoinderisappropriate?

a. After thetrial
b. Before thetrial
c. During thetrial
d. Noneoftheabove

24. Whymaythedefenseargueagainstjoinder?

a. Thejurymaynotconsiderthecriminalactsseparately.
b. Thejurymayviewalltheevidenceagainsttheaccusedasinadequate.
c. Onlyonecriminaldefensecanbeasserted.
d. All of theabove

25. Therighttoagrandjurycanbefoundinwhichconstitutionalamendment?

a. Fourth
b. Fifth
c. Sixth
d. Fourteenth

MultipleChoiceQuestions(Enteryouranswersontheenclosedanswersheet)

1. Pleasbargainingincludeschargebargaining,sentencebargaining,and bargaining.

a. number
b. count
c. judge
d. appeal

2. Sentencebargainingrequireswhotobeinvolved?

a. Prosecutor
b. Judge
c. Defenseattorney
d. All of theabove

3. Whichofthefollowingareacceptablepleabargains?

a. A lightersentence
b. Certain probationconditions
c. Prosecutor’sdecisionnottoprosecuteunderahabitualoffenderstatute
d. All of theabove

4. WhichofthefollowingbestdescribestheSupremeCourt’sviewonpleabargaining?

a. TheCourtsupportsitunequivocally.
b. TheCourtsupportsitbutrequiresthatcertainproceduresbefollowed.
c. TheCourtdisagreeswithit.
d. Noneoftheabove

5. Whichofthefollowingcanbeconsideredimpermissibleinducementsbytheprosecution?

a. Prosecutorthreatensthedefendantwithincreasedchargesagainstathirdparty
b. Prosecutorthreatensthedefendantwithdecreasedchargesagainstathirdparty
c. Prosecutorflagrantlydeceivesthedefendant
d. All of theabove

6. Whichofthefollowingisatypeofpleabargainingwheretheprosecutoroffersareductionin theseverityoftheallegedcrimes?

a. Sentencebargaining
b. Chargebargaining
c. Indictmentbargaining
d. Noneoftheabove

7. Whichofthefollowingisatypeofpleabargainingwherethedefendantagreestopleadguilty inexchangeforlessseriousconsequences?

a. Sentencebargaining
b. Chargebargaining
c. Indictmentbargaining
d. Noneoftheabove

8. Chargebargainingisusuallycarriedoutbetweenwhom?

a. Thejudgeandprosecutor
b. Thejudgeanddefense
c. Thedefenseandtheprosecutor
d. Noneoftheabove

9. Whichofthefollowingareexamplesofadhocpleabargaining?

a. Prosecutor offers reduction insentence
b. Prosecutoroffersreductionincharges
c. Accusedisrequiredtoacceptextraordinaryconditionofprobation
d. All of theabove

10. Therighttoanimpartialjurystemsfromwhichconstitutionalamendment?

a. Fifth
b. Sixth
c. Seventh
d. Eighth

11. Therighttoajurytrialappliesin:

a. noncriminalproceedings.
b. civilproceedings.
c. criminalcasesinwhichthepenaltyforasingleoffenseexceedssixmonths.
d. all pettyoffenses.

12. TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourthasruledwhatastheminimumnumberofjurorsneededto comply with constitutional requirements in a criminalcase?

a. 3
b. 5
c. 6
d. 9

13. Forawaiverofajurytrialtobevalid,itmustbe:

a. express.
b. intelligent.
c. voluntary.
d. All of theabove

14. Mostjuriesincriminalcasesconsistofhowmanymembers?

a. 6
b. 12
c. 18
d. 24

15. Howmanystagesaretheretojuryselection?

a. One
b. Two
c. Three
d. Four

16. Thelistofpotentialjurymembersisknownasthe:

a. jurypool.
b. masterjurywheel.
c. jurylist.
d. All of theabove

17. Inmoststatespotentialjurorsneedtobe:

a. of a certainage.
b. U.S.citizens.
c. free of felonyconvictions.
d. All of theabove

18. Whichofthefollowingisavalidtechniqueforchallengingthecompositionofajury?

a. Equal protectionchallenge
b. Due processchallenge
c. Sixth Amendmentchallenge
d. All of theabove

19. Ajurythatrepresentsa“faircross-section”ofthecommunitywithinthemeaningoftheSixth Amendmentisonethatdoesnotexclude:

a. racialminorities.
b. women.
c. distinctivegroups.
d. All of theabove

20. InMelendez-Diazv.Massachusetts,theSupremeCourtruledthatananalyst’slaboratoryreport preparedfortheprosecutionwas:

a. admissiblebasedonawell-establishedhearsayexception.
b. testimonial,sothedefendantshouldhavebeenallowedtocross-examinetheanalyst.
c. admissible because scientific reports are reliable.
d. testimonialunlessatestablesampleofthematerialonwhichthereportisbasedismade available to thedefendant.

21. Whichconstitutionalamendmentcontainsthedoublejeopardyclause?

a. Fourth
b. Fifth
c. Sixth
d. Fourteenth

22. Doublejeopardyoccurswhen,forthesameoffense,apersonis:

a. re-prosecuted afteracquittal.
b. re-prosecuted afterconviction.
c. subjectedtoseparatepunishmentsforthesameoffense.
d. all of theabove.

23. InwhichcasedidtheSupremeCourtdeclarethatprotectionagainstdoublejeopardyisa fundamentalright?

a. Benton v.Maryland
b. Gideonv. Wainwright
c. Kansas v.Hendricks
d. Blockburger v. UnitedStates

24. Whichofthefollowingcanbeconsideredaseparatesovereignfordoublejeopardypurposes?

a. Cities
b. Counties
c. States
d. Different state appellate courtdistricts

25. Theconstitutionallyguaranteedprotectionagainst is designedtoensurethatapersonwhohasbeenconvictedoracquittedofacrimeisnottriedorpunishedforthe sameoffensemorethanonce.

a. entrapment
b. self-incrimination
c. doublejeopardy
d. Noneoftheabove

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